A little history, if you will. Part Ia
Date: Sun, 07 Sep 1997 19:12:28 -0700
23:55 Meramec Caverns; Stanton, Missouri :: 6 SEP 97
1800-1819 . 1820-1839
. 1840-1859 . 1860-1879
[Navigational Note: The
'§' character always leads to online historical documents.]
(341K): Admission of States and Territorial Acquistion.
(775K): Exploration and settlement 1800-1819.
(84K): Territorial Growth 1800.
The Land Act of 1800 divides the Northwest Territory, creating the
Indiana Territory out of the western section. It also provides for a
liberal credit system on the purchase of federal lands, and a reduction
in the minimum amount of land offered for sale to one section (640 acres),
at $2 per acre.
By secret treaty, Spain cedes the Louisiana Territory to France.
Gouging, a frontier sport, reaches the peak of its popularity in the
Ohio Valley. The ultimate goal of the sport is to gouge out an opponent's
eye with the thumbnail.
Second census: US population - 5,309,000.
as the third President of the United States in the first presidential
inauguration to be held in Washington, D.C.
(real name John Chapman) arrives in Licking County, Ohio with a bag
of apple seeds.
The "right of deposit" for Americans is withdrawn by the Spanish in
New Orleans. The American pioneers west of the Appalachians are greatly
alarmed by this move, since New Orleans is the only port through which
they can sell their products profitably. The move prompts President
to begin negotiations for the purchase of New Olreans, which culminate
in the Louisiana
Federal law prohibits the sale of liquor to American Indians.
(194K): Westward Expansion and Exploration 1803-1807.
to the United States for 15,000,000. This first territorial expansion
of the US west of the Mississippi totals 828,000 square miles.
Army officers Lewis
are chosen by President Jefferson
to lead an expedition from St. Louis to the Pacific Ocean, for the purpose
of discovering a direct water route across the continent and to keep
records of the natural resources of the new land, with the aim of establishing
an American presence in the northwest through trade and settlement.
Resumption of war between England and France disrupts the trans-Atlantic
trade and emigration from continental Europe to the U.S. becomes virtually
is admitted as the 17th state in the Union.
The expedition of Lewis
and Clark sets out from Camp Wood, near St. Louis, Missouri, on
The Louisiana Territory Act§,
which divides the new territory and provides a territorial government,
gives the first official notice of the intention of the US to move Indians
living east of the Mississippi River to the west of the river.
The Land Act of 1804 reduces the minimum cash payment for Western
lands from $2.00 per acre to $1.64 per acre and permits a minimum purchase
of one quarter section (160 acres).
Baptiste LaLande is sent by William Morrison from St. Louis to open
trade with the Spanish in Santa Fe. LaLande finds his way there, and
likes the area so much that he decides to stay.
Thomas Jefferson is inaugurated§
for his second term.
The Michigan section of the Indiana Territory is organized as the
Michigan Territory. The District of Louisiana becomes the Louisiana
Fort Bellefontaine is established by soldiers of the regular army
at the confluence of the Mississippi and Missouri rivers north of St.
Louis, Missouri, thus extending United States control into the West.
Zebulon Pike heads a government expedition to find the source of
the Mississippi River.
Lewis and Clark reach the Pacific Ocean on November 18, 1805.
Antoine Larocque explores the valley of the Yellowstone River and
winters with the Mandans.
travels across the Canadian Rockies to the Pacific.
Lewis and Clark return to St. Louis on September 23; their expedition
has established an overland route to the Pacific Ocean.
Zebulon Pike heads an expedition to the headwaters of the Arkansas
River and into Spanish Territory beyond. Pike evaluates the Great Plains
as "unfit for white
settlement." Pike is captured by the Spanish and later evicted from
Thomas Freeman heads a government expedition and produces the first
accurate map of the lower Red River.
Congress enacts an embargo against Great Britain to protest the seizure
of American ships and the impressment of American sailors.
Aaron Burr's alleged
"conspiracy" to establish an independent state from land controlled
by Spain collapses with his arrest on charges of treason; he is later
The office of Superintendent of Indian Trade is established in the
War Department to administer federal Indian trading houses, called "factories".
Reports by Lewis and Clark of the richness of beaver and otter in
the trans-Mississippi west lead to the formation of the Rocky Mountain
fur trade by trappers and traders.
Lisa, a St.
Louis trader, leads an expedition of 42 men up the Missouri and
Yellowstone rivers to the beaver-rich heart of the Crow nation. Lisa
builds a trading post at the mouth of the Bighorn River.
President Jefferson orders British warships to leave US territorial
waters in retaliation for the attack on the US frigate Chesapeake
by the British frigate Leopard off the coast of Virginia.
passes an act§
prohibiting the African slave trade and the importation of slaves into
any place within the jurisdiction of the United States after January
Fulton's steamboat Clermont makes its first run to Albany
from New York in about 30 hours, inaugurating the era of successful
steamboat navigation on a commercial basis.
David Thompson ascends the Columbia River to its source at Lake Windermere,
and sets up the first trading post west of the Rocky Mountains.
John Jacob Astor charters the American Fur Company to compete with
the British fur trade in Canada.
Napoleon issues the Bayonne decree, seizing all US shipping in European
ports. Ten million dollars in US goods and ships are confiscated.
The African slave trade, prohibited
by act of Congress in 1807, persists. In 1808 the sale of unneeded slaves
within the US from agriculturally poor areas to fertile areas has become
profitable than soil cultivation.
as the fourth President of the United States.
In the Treaty
of Fort Wayne, General William Henry Harrison obtains 2.5 million
acres from American Indians in Ohio and Indiana. [umm, the treaty
and its supplement
are both dated in 1810--the history wall seems in error here.]
The Illinois Territory is formed.
The first successful sea voyage by steamboat is made by John Stevens'
Phoenix, which sails from New York City to Philadelphia.
Nuttal§, a natural
scientist, explores the Missouri River beyond the Mandan villages.
Meriwether Lewis dies while traveling to Washington, DC on the Natchez
Trace. A dispute arises as to whether he was murdered or committed suicide.
The Missouri Fur company is chartered§ by the Chouteau family.
(122K): Territorial Growth 1810.
An uprising of Americans against Spanish rule results in the capture
of the Spanish fort at Baton Rouge in West Florida and the proclamation
of the Republic of West Florida. President Madison annexes West Florida,
and announces its military absorption into the Orleans Territory on
the grounds of the consent of local authority.
Nicholas Appert describes a system for food preservation by canning,
using glass jars.
Chief of the Shawnees§,
organizes the defensive confederacy of Indian tribes of the Northwestern
The confederacy is actively supported by the Canadian Governor and British
US population - 7,239,000
The Wilson Price Hunt§
expedition travels to the west coast for John Jacob Astor's Pacific
Fur Company. They make the second great American overland crossing after
Lewis and Clark. The group discovers Union Pass at the north end of
the Wind River Mountains and establishes Fort Astoria, a fur trading
post, at the mouth of the Columbia River.
Congressional elections bring western "war hawks" to Congress: Henry
Clay of Kentucky and John C. Calhoun of South Carolina advocate strong
nationalist policies, including US expansion through the conquest of
President Madison's Annual Message to Congress requests preparations
for national defense.
Tecumseh's brother, Tenskwatawa ("The Prophet"), is defeated by William
Harrison in the Battle
Ft. Ross is built by Russia 80 miles north of San Francisco as a center
for fur trading operations in North America.
The side-wheeler, New Orleans, the first steamboat to be built west
of the Appalachians, is built in Pittsburgh, initiating steamboat navigation
in the west.
against Great Britain.
White settlers are driven out of the Lake Michigan region by American
Indians during the Fort Dearborn massacres.
The term "Uncle Sam" is introduced. Samuel Wilson, a meat-packer in
Troy, New York, is called "Uncle" Sam to distinguish him from a younger
Samuel Wilson from the same town. Soldiers begin to call Wilson's meat
"Uncle Sam's" because of the stamp "U.S." on provision boxes.
The War of 1812 brings immigration to the United States to a complete
The General Land Office is created, and duties previously handled
by the Secretary of the Treasury are delegated to a Land Commissioner
and his appointed Surveyors General.
Louisiana is admitted as the eighteenth state in the Union. It is
the first state to be admitted to the Union west of the Mississippi.
James Madison is inaugurated§
for his second term.
"We have met the enemy and they are ours: two ships, two brigs, one
schooner, and one sloop." Captain Oliver Hazard Perry defeats and captures
the British fleet on Lake Erie.
Tecumseh, chief of the Shawnees, is killed in the Battle
of the Thames in Ontario, Canada. General William Henry Harrison's
victory there signals the collapse of Indian confederacy in the Northwest.
John Jacob Astor's bid for a fur empire crumbles before British traders
and as a result of the War of
1812. Fort Astoria is abandoned at gunpoint, as the Americans sell
out to the British Northwest Company, which renames the post Fort George.
Zebulon Pike is killed leading US troops in an attack on York, the
Capitol of Upper Canada. American forces burn York.
The US captures the Spanish fort at Mobile and occupies West Florida,
the western half of which had been annexed in 1810.
President Madison requests an embargo against New York and New England
merchants who are trading with the enemy. Congress passes the measure
over strong opposition. Frontier trade with the enemy persists.
Napoleon is defeated by the British under the Duke of Wellington.
Wellington's British forces arrive in the United States by the summer.
Washington, DC is burned by the British.
Francis Scott Key's "The Star Spangled Banner" is written during the
bombardment of Baltimore's Fort McHenry by the British.
A decisive American victory is won in the Battle of Plattsburgh on
The Treaty of Ghent§
ends the War of 1812.
The first steam-powered warship, Demologos, designed and constructed
by Robert Fulton, is launched in New York harbor.
At the end of the Creek War in the Southeast, Andrew
Jackson strips the Creeks of their land in Mississippi Territory.
Troops under Andrew Jackson defeat British forces in the Battle of
New Orleans before word of the Treaty of Ghent§
reaches the US.
Des Sioux, at the confluence of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers,
treaties of peace and friendship are signed with American Indian tribes
. The treaties terminate resistance in the Old Northwest and enable
rapid settlement of the area.
Peace brings renewed western expansion into the Mississippi Valley,
from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico.
Congress declares war against Algiers. A treaty is concluded four
months later, stipulating that no more payments of tribute will be demanded
by the Dey of Algiers, and that all Americans reduced to slavery will
be released without ransom.
American railroading begins as John
Stevens of Hoboken, New Jersey is issued the first railroad charter
in America. Stevens builds a small circular track on his land, and runs
a steam engine of his own invention on it by 1825.
A law assisting American fur traders§ in their efforts
to exclude the British from US land is passed by Congress.
Indiana is admitted as the nineteenth state in the Union.
Monroe is inaugurated§
as the fifth President of the United States.
The Rush-Bagot Agreement§,
limiting naval power on the Great Lakes, is signed by Great Britain
and the United States.
[Rowe] Schoolcraft, a geologist and ethnologist, makes pioneer studies
of North American Indians in his exploration of the Missouri and Arkansas
Construction of the Erie Canal is authorized by the New York legislature.
The canal, linking Albany on the Hudson River with Buffalo on Lake Erie,
will become a significant artery in the westward movement of Americans
from the East Coast.
Alabama Territory is formed.
Mississippi is admitted as the twentieth state of the Union.
The Cabinet, Senate, and House condemn General Andrew Jackson's occupation
of St. Marks and Pensacola in Spanish-held East Florida. Jackson executes
two British subjects accused of aiding the hostile Seminoles.
Popular approval, however, prevents punishment of Jackson.
Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, asserting that Jackson's campaign
is for the defense of US interests, sends an ultimatum to the Spanish
government: either control hostile Indians or cede Florida to the US.
The US/Canadian border is fixed at the forty-ninth
parallel between Lake-of-the-woods and the crest of the Rocky Mountains.
The Oregon boundary question is left open for later settlement, and
allows joint occupation of Oregon by the US and Great Britain.
Thirteen stripes on the US flag are made constant by law. Upon admission
of each new state to the Union, a star will be added to the flag.
The black-ball line of sailing packets begins regular Liverpool-to-NY
Liverpool becomes the main port of embarkation for Irish, British, German,
and Norwegian immigrants.
Illinois is admitted as the twenty-first state in the Union.
Treaty provides for the cession of East Florida to the US, and defines
the western borders of the Louisiana Purchase.
A financial panic, particularly affecting the southern and western
states, is caused by the collapse of credit on purchases of western
The US Supreme Court, in McCulloch
vs. Maryland, expresses a nationalist doctrine of "implied powers."
This doctrine holds that if the "end" is legitimate and the "means"
are not prohibited by the letter and spirit of the Constitution, the
means are Constitutional.
Jethrow Wood of New York develops a cast-iron three piece plow with
John Hall invents an improved breechloading rifle.
Congress authorizes an annual sum of $10,000 as a "civilization fund"
to teach agriculture, reading, writing and arithmetic to American Indian
people, in hopes that they will adopt the ways of white society.
Arkansas Territory is formed.
Alabama is admitted as the twenty-second state in the Union.
1800-1819 . 1820-1839
. 1840-1859 . 1860-1879
~~~ Responses Sought ~~~
History is nothing more than a tableau
of crimes and misfortunes.
The world's history is the world's judgement.
||Friedrich von Schiller