Critical History

American Westward Expansion
In the 19th Century, the United States fulfilled its Manifest Destiny, successfully extending its continental domain from East to West. These pages place the events of that history along a textual timeline.

Hiroshima: At 8:15 AM, on August 6, 1945...
"On 6 August ... came the historic news that shook the world," wrote Harry Truman, who told his aide, "This is the greatest thing in history." The world should still shake after the first military use of an atomic weapon. Hiroshima will never let us forget.

Andrew Jackson: Indian Removal Policy & The Trail of Tears

"Toward the aborigines of the country no one can indulge a more friendly feeling than myself, or would go further in attempting to reclaim them from their wandering habits and make them a happy, prosperous people."

So Andrew Jackson said in his second annual message to Congress. But the Indian Removal Act, enacted earlier that year, forced the last Eastern tribes to move west of the Mississippi, and resulted in the death marches which would be later called The Trail of Tears.

Chief Seattle and the Ecology Speech

"In 1854, the 'Great White Chief' in Washington made an offer for a large area of Indian land and promised a `reservation' for the Indian people.

"Chief Seattle's reply, reproduced here in full, has been described as the most beautiful and profound statement on the environment ever made."

Chief Seattle probably did respond eloquently to the "Great White Chief's" offer.
We'll just never know what he said. In fact, the version most people are familiar with was written by a Hollywood screenwriter.